# Bias Temperature Instability for Devices and Circuits

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^ 2 (6.11) where t = T — T. a and /3 are constants characteristic of the metals. IX This differs from Eq. (9.20) by the factor 5 because that equation referred to the energy of a circuit in a previously established field. Introduction. — As was pointed out in Sec. 10.2, the enlargement of the concept of electric current to bring about consistency between the equations for the divergence of the current and the curl of H has very important consequences when [...]